Anatomy of LNG Shipping & Operations

Aim: To gain a full understanding of the LNG value chain, with particular emphasis on the crucial role of marine transport in the core areas of: Design & Engineering, Operations and Commercial Trading.

The course begins with an overview of global energy markets and the projected growth of LNG in this mix.  A detailed insight into how ocean-going LNG trade originated and more importantly how it will continue to evolve.  Interactive learning modules, supplemented by case studies, cover the principal design features of terminals as well as the existing and future fleet.

Particular attention will be focused on cargo containment and propulsion systems.  This will lead to a full understanding of the drivers for voyage economics, freight costs and the principles that determine hire rates.  Further modules will cover cargo planning and scheduling, efficient operations such as heel management, optimum speed and fuel modes.

The concluding and highly interactive chartering modules will cover the commercial and legal aspects of charter party contracts, LNG-specific clauses, and market fundamentals.


  • The Energy Mix
    • Coal, Oil, Gas and Renewables — overview
    • Factors influencing Supply and Demand
    • Demand outlook and forecast for LNG in the mix
  • Introduction to Energy Trading and Shipping
    • Introduction to energy trading
    • the role of shipping


  • Supply-side Considerations
    • Physical properties and challenges
    • LNG Production, Storage and Handling
    • Distribution
      • Pipeline vs. Liquid
      • Economic and political considerations
  • The LNG Trade
    • LNG Trade Patterns: Historic and Current
    • Emergence of LNG Commodity Market — impact and implications


  • Key Elements of Carrier Design — I
    • Challenges
      • Physical challenges
      • Construction costs
      • Capacity trends
      • Management
    • Containment Systems — past, present and future
  • Key Elements of Carrier Design — II
    • Propulsion Systems — past, present and future
      • Economic evaluation
    • Reliquefaction
    • Floating Regasification
    • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) options
    • Floating LNG terminals (FLNG) and other new developments


  • Design Features of Load and Discharge Facilities
    • Land installations
    • Floating facilities
      • Floating Storage Regasification Units (FSRU)
      • FLNG
  • Logistics Challenges
    • Annual Delivery Programmes
    • The art of scheduling
    • Impact of cool-down
    • Ship/Shore compatibility
    • Emergency Shut-Down Systems
    • Safety Procedures


  • Primary Features of Vessel Operations
    • Boil-Off Gas
      • Its use as fuel
      • Reliquefication options
      • Use of the Gas Combustion Units (GCU)
    • Heel — purpose and management
  • Case Study #1: Heel Management
    • Cargo Handling
      • Cool-down
      • Tank preparation
      • Fill limits
      • Sea conditions and the effect of sloshing
    • Ship Management
      • Operating cost structure
      • Crew matrix and other crewing considerations
      • Maintenance & repair experience of marine cryogenic systems


    • Fundamental Cost & Revenue Criteria
      • The distinction between voyage and deal economics
      • Contract terms and margin expectation
      • Measuring vessel earning
    • Factors Specific to the LNG Business
      • Introduction to LNG specific factors
      • Heel Retention vs. Cool-Down — worked examples
      • Fuel vs. Force Vapourising
      • Bunkering Strategies e.g. Low Emission Trading Areas
    • Case Study #2: Voyage Economics
    • Performance of the Voyage
      • Voyage Orders and Communications Protocols
      • Emergency Response
      • Piracy and General Security


    • Chartering in the LNG Market
      • An overview of the Global LNG fleet by
        • Age
        • Size
        • Ownership
        • Regional differences
      • Introduction to the charter market
        • Key players
        • Terminology
        • Conduct in the market
    • Charter Parties Used in the LNG Trades
      • Adaptation of Standard Charter Party Forms
      • Differing Formats and their merits
      • Charter Party Clauses
      • Negotiation practices
    • Cargo versus Vessel Contracts
      • The gap between the cargo contract and the charter party
      • Lay/Can considerations
      • Laytime inconsistencies
    • Case Study #3: The Chartering Game
      • Qestions & Answer Session


    • Global Energy Demand
      • Energy Conservation
      • Expansion of renewable sources
      • Their impact on the market for LNG and shipping
    • Ship Propulsion and Containment Systems
      • Propulsion systems
        • Steam turbines
        • Conventional versus Ultra High Pressure
        • Two versus four-stroke diesel engines
        • Dual-Fuel Diesel Electric (DFDE)
        • Tri-Fuel Diesel Electric (TFDE)
        • Gas turbines
        • Respective thermal and fuel efficiencies
      • Use of boil-off gas versus gas recovery
      • Containment Systems
        • Self-supporting versus membrane technology
        • Advantages and disadvantages of each
        • GTT latest technology
    • LNG as a Fuel
      • LNG as fuel
      • Economic and environmental justifications
      • Risk of LNG as a marine fuel
      • Is retro-fitting an economic proposition


    LNG Carrier

    Course information

    23-27 June 2019
    The Møller Centre, Cambridge

    The Moller Centre

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    The current fee for this residential programme is £4,290 (£3,575 plus £715 UK Value Added Tax) and covers tuition, documentation, private en-suite accommodation at Madingley Hall, all meals and a social programme. A rendezvous has been arranged at a central London hotel following which there is complimentary transport to Cambridge.

    Programme and Booking Form

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    For a Booking Form,  click here.